The Basics of Digital Forensics and Evidence

imagesForensic science is just one study of legal issues and the pursuit of answers to legal questions by applying scientific knowledge and technology. There are two specific cases where the legal system becomes involved, first, when private parties, such as businesses, need facts to support such civil action lawsuit. The second example occurred when a crime is suspected or have been made. Now, in both cases, a forensic investigator, or rather a forensic science practitioners should examine the resources available today to discover the facts that are supported by the available resources. And more than that, the fact help answer questions expected or required by law system.

Forensics Investigations

There the difference between an investigation initiated in the private business sector differs significantly from investigations initiated by public officials for criminal investigations. The most significant difference is the possible effect of the probe. Private investigations could potentially result in any or all of the following events:

Loss / gain of money or goods

The loss or maintenance work

Potential disciplinary action

Criminal charges

The most common reason for investigation in the public sector is a criminal activity has the potential to imprison citizens. In some cases, a public inquiry will involve the obligation of public officials on issues involving public safety and the investigation may result in the loss of public funds paying taxes, or may affect new legislation . Since most public investigations involving crimes and criminals that commit them, the term public inquiry will be used synonymously with the criminal investigation around text.

The monetary costs associated with the legal action is known as a motivator in forensic investigations. In general investigation, prosecution can take years and cost millions of taxpayer dollars in court costs. Suspect the prosecution should have legal defense costs and, although ultimately convicted, the defendant in a legal case may suffer a loss of reputation and work. If the claimant fails to successfully convict the suspect has the right to restitution for damage to reputation or wages. To make matters worse, the suspect may have to pursue private legal action to cover damages resulting costs.

Legal more action in the private sector is not exempt from the monetary motivators. Private sector legal action may extend over several years and cost millions of private funds. In addition to the potential monetary costs, in the case of the private sector tend to bear the high cost in time and inconvenience for all possible participants.

The successful legal action whether it is private or public considerable increases as the level of confidence in truth investigation increase. For example, in the case of private sector frequently check the facts to assess whether the company violated policy or employment contract. With very few exceptions, the public sector investigation involving law enforcement as the investigation resulting from the crime or in cases where the alleged crime was occurred.

Private investigation has revealed the potential for criminal activity. Although the technology and tools to gather the facts of the same or similar to the case of the private and public sectors, the procedure for collecting the two will vary considerably. Despite their differences, the two rules are rarely contradictory, but it will have to deal with all private parties, including forensic investigators, and private attorneys, and local law enforcement and public defenders to keep level of confidence in the credibility of the investigation. Investigators Forensic investigators trained to be a professional to apply forensic science. Apply this knowledge and skills in many disciplines such as geology, physics, chemistry, toxicology and more. Therefore, forensics can be defined as the application of various disciplines to answer legal questions. The first function of a forensic investigator to assess the legality and feasibility of collecting evidence. Nature of the investigation requires the collection and analysis of evidence conducted in full accordance with the law. Both public and private investigations must respect the rights of personal citizens.

Once likely cause is established, calling for the dismissal. With the call for the band, giving law enforcement the right to search for evidence of a specific crime, but only allowed to gather evidence in “plain sight” clear and say the crimes committed . Another forensic investigator function is to support the “tracks in prison” the right of all the evidence collected in a case. Chain of custody is a simple record of what evidence was gathered that, when developed, and you access it. A proper chain of custody is necessary to prevent contamination or even the emergence of evidence of contamination. Chain of custody is equally important to both public and private investigations.

Evidence Whether public or private, the facts of the case appear from the evidence in the investigation. The best evidence is defined as real or short to reveal and prove the objective reality of the investigation. Evidence is usually used to prove the fact that crime has been committed, the suspect did or did not commit the crime, the sequence of events during the motives crime: The method of proof may include, blood evidence, trace evidence material, fingerprints, personal or personal records, public records, drug content, evidence control, identification and testimony.

During investigation, two very different roles in the emerging field of forensics. The first role is the collection of evidence. This role requires a relatively limited experience, training and qualifications. An investigator in this role is often to travel to crime scenes or evidence could be called to prepare for the second paper. The second paper is the study of evidence. Here, evidence is reviewed, assessed, and studied for the facts and conclusions.

Traditional methods of latent Fingerprint Recovery

FEATURE_FORENSICS_pg048_300_tcm18-214419Latent fingerprints left at the scene of brands visible. Not found to convert latent print visible form. Therefore, the first task of the forensic scientist is to convert the hidden finger print marks visible. There are different approach to latent fingerprint recovery. With this, we will discuss three popular approach fingerprint visualization.

Powder Dust: This is the most popular method for extracting fingerprints from a crime scene. Dust powder is a perfect example of a physical method of fingerprint extraction solid surface. Two types of powder used to obtain fingerprints. One is the regular powder used in non-shining surface like a table top, door and television. Another is that the magnetic powders used on slick surfaces such as glass and plastic packaging. Fingerprint powder is available in different colors. Choice of color depends on the color of skin. White powder used in surface or deep black and the black powder used in surface brightness. Powder is poured on top and spread apart by a light brush. Fingerprint impressions are formed on the surface of copies and raised by adhesive tape.

Super-glue anger: it is also known as super glue vapor technology. Oil and sweat contains amino acids, glucose, ammonia and other organic compounds. The basic theory of super-glue technology to apply Cyanoacrylate anger that reacts chemically with organic constituents of the oil and sweat. Cyanoacrylate is a colorless substance that polymerized and used as a powerful adhesive. These chemicals are known as super-glue. Super-glue and suspect materials stored in a container airtight. Super-glue-fumes created by heating at a temperature of 120-140 degrees. The acid reacts with the organic constituents of oil and sweat it is removed from the finger. Chemical reaction to form an impression of latent fingerprints.

Iodine angry: This is one of the oldest scientific methods of latent fingerprint recovery. Although the process of obtaining latent fingerprints super glue and iodine anger angry about the same, but there are major differences between the two technologies. While hate super glue technology depends on the chemical reaction of the materials super glue, anger iodine based on the physical properties of iodine. In anger iodine, oils and fats obtained iodine vapor while and that the results of changing colors, from clear to dark brown. However, a change began to fade within a short time. Therefore, 1% starch solution sprayed water to change the color of dark brown to blue. Change color generally lasts for one or two weeks. Contrast of fingerprint impressions create a good image contrast latent fingerprint.

The Importance Of Having Telecom Map

If you’re looking for ways to improve your office telecommunications system, be sure to consider using a map or maps of fiber optic telecommunications. Keep in mind that the cable system is designed to provide telecommunications services is efficient and fast for office and business enterprise. Unlike other telecommunication systems, telecommunication map will help you connect all your office equipment and computers on a network. When there is no doubt, the cable system is essential for all forms of business and offices.

In world today, offices and businesses need a better set of tools to compete effectively in the market. For a company to rise above the rest, the company should use early and innovative tools. By improving communication systems, the company can provide customers with an output of work faster and more efficiently. Keep in mind that receives and sends data that can slow the flow of work in a company because they slow down the operation and functionality of the computer. To improve efficiency and productivity, enterprises must use advanced communication systems that can meet a lot of files on a shared network. In this case, it is advisable for businesses to use optical fiber for fiber network map of your network maps.

Installing system provides your office with a network system that is able to store a lot of data and files without sacrificing the speed of your network. By a system of fiber network maps, able to share or transfer files and data at any time you need. In addition, fiber optic cable map allows you to monitor all activities on your office computer without the risk of losing important files. By a cable system, be able to track your employees and assess the main benefits have activity.

One telecommunications system map that allows you to make long distance calls without signal loss or delay . Keep in mind that conventional cable systems are very susceptible to signal loss. Fiber optic system with a map, on the other hand, can provide you the telecommunications system is faster and more proficiently. Thus, the optical fiber, the sales of your company will be better and faster.

There many companies are now offering services for the installation of communications systems. With so many options to choose from, finding a good and reliable optical fiber companies can be a complicated task to complete. To find a reliable company that installed the system maps the optical fiber cable, make sure to seek advice from other internet users.

I solved the problem Notebook

Some regular notebook operating problems and fixes them. All work is assumed that Windows is fully updated and the problem still occurs. If the item re-quires turn off your system and you can not do that, press and hold the power button for five seconds. HOW to solve unexpected problems REBOOTS Unexpected PC (also called uncommanded) PC reboots often occur because the Windows OS is set by default to reboot the system failure . A restart may also occur because the updates will automatically restart the system, but it is something that you should be warned about. If you do not install the update before reboot, you should determine the cause of system failures before things get worse. A rare, but possible, problem is the BIOS incompatibility. If you upgrade to the new version of Windows on an older notebook, check with the manufacturer to see if you need to update the BIOS. Another cause of the reboot is a software or hardware bug or incompatible drivers. If the problem started after installing any hardware or software, or when you open a particular program, check with the manufacturer / developer to update. Other cause during operation of the power system reboot or heat. We recommend professional services for electrical problems. However, the heat build-up is something that can be done to solve yourself.

HOW TO PREVENT OVERHEATING Locate air vents and do not rest your notebook for anything blocking it. Also, check for dust blocking the vents. With the engine turned off and the battery removed, trying to extract the dust with tweezers or a cotton swab dipped in alcohol light. If dirt or dust through the vents start, mini vacuum (USB) would be useful. We do not recommend compressed in this step, because you can rotate the fan blades and cause excessive damage. If this does not resolve the problem, contact your computer’s manual for cleaning instructions. If you can not find the instructions and wanted to try it, shut down and unplug the notebook, remove the battery, and remove the screws on the bottom that can allow you to access your computer. Ground yourself by using a wrist strap or touch a grounded unpainted surfaces often before trying to remove the object from the notebook. If you choose to use compressed turn around to clean up your system, insert a toothpick between two fan blades to prevent excessive spinning.

HOW to troubleshoot shutdown ISSUES

If you install new software or new hardware and your computer will not shut down normally, there the possibility that the driver or the process associated with the new addition is causing the problem. Uninstall the software or hardware. If your computer shuts down normally, you can consult with the developer / manufacturer for a possible solution to install Windows problem. If not closed when you’d expect, the solution may be as simple Adjust your power settings. Right-click the battery icon in the System Tray and select Power Options. I like to tweak settings Choose What Closing the lid to break the corpse Does.

HOW NOTEBOOKA notebook – one which failed to start (no BIOS message) when you press the power button can result a number of things. Check to see if the notebook starts when you plug the AC adapter. If so, the battery may be damaged. Remove the battery and replace it, make sure there is no connector block. If this does not help, see if your notebook has a battery test features, such as the HP Battery Check. If the notebook does not start charging AC power or batteries, HOW to solve the electricity problem ISSUES Press power button on the laptop and check the auditory and visual cues. Is the power light? If so, the machine is getting power. If not, then the AC adapter and / or battery may be damaged. Use a compatible AC adapter and see if you can start the engine, if so, leave the adapter plugged to ensure that the battery charge to check DISPLAY If correctly.

HOW have worked, but with the problem, views, number of previous issue of guilt. Have you recently installed a new video card or the problem only occurs when you run certain software? If so, you may need to adjust the video settings. Right-click an empty area of the Desktop, select Properties, Property Graphics (Vista), or the Screen Resolution. Interface varies based on the model of your notebook and a graphics chip / card, but you should be able to tweak some settings. If you just installed the video card, you may also need to consult with the manufacturer for more information. If the display is dim or goes blank suddenly, check the power options that have been mentioned previously. Power-saving mode may cause the behavior. Also, make sure the screen saver is not set to empty. For a blank screen at boot time, or if the previous solution does not help, turn off the system and plug in an external monitor. If the external monitor works display, video screen notebook may be damaged (this is rare unless there is visible damage). It is also possible that the connection might be loose or damaged. If the external monitor does not work, chip adapter / video may be broken or uprooted. If the display is scrambled or fail in the long-term operation, one or more of your memory chip may have failed or video processor may be overheating. Video of failure can also occur when the notebook is too hot throughout (see “How to Prevent Overheating” for help). If the screen looks like there is liquid spreads, may need to be replaced. If the evidence points to a more serious problem mentioned in the last two paragraphs, consult your service to solve manual.

HOW DRIVE If FAIL removable optical drive, be sure that it is properly seated (your documentation if necessary). You also may want to buy a kit with a clean and clear way IT Many instructions.

SERVICE its solution directly to the service manual. Notebook vary in configuration, so it is impossible to provide generic guidance. Look for a service manual for specific notebook models. If you feel uncomfortable or can not find instructions to repair, seek professional help.

File Integrity Monitoring – Agent vs. agentless FIM FIM


The incessant recourse, both in malware sophistication and proliferation, meaning the need for basic file integrity monitoring is important to maintain a malware-free system. Technology-based anti-virus signature is too easily mistaken and surrounded by zero-day malware or made selective and targeted advanced persistent threat (APT) a virus, worm or Trojan malware.

Any good security policy is recommended to use the regular file integrity checking system and configuration files based on best practices and security standards such as PCI DSS (Requirement 11.5), NERC CIP (Security System R15-R19), the Department of Defense Information Assurance (IA) Implementation (Dodi 8500.2), Sarbanes-Oxley (Section 404), FISMA – Federal Information Security Management Act (NIST SP800-53 Rev3) specifically mandates the need to conduct regular checks for Any unauthorized modification of critical system files, configuration files, or content files, and configure the software to perform the file comparison weekly.

However Critical least, file integrity monitoring must be spread with little advanced planning and understanding of how the file system of your server behaves regularly to determine what events are unusual and therefore potentially threaten looks like. The next question then is whether or agentless approach Agent based is best for your environment. This article discusses the pros and cons of both options.

Agentless FIM for Windows and Linux / Unix Servers

Starting the most obvious advantages, the benefits are obvious first agentless approach to file integrity monitoring that does not require agent software to be used the monitored host. This means that the agentless solutions like Tripwire FIM or nCircle will always be the fastest option to deploy and to get results from. Not only that but there is no software agents to update or potentially disrupt the integrity of the file server operation. The unique agentless monitoring solution for Windows and Linux / Unix will spend scripted, command-line interaction with the host to ask important files. The simple end of the scale, can be baselined Linux file using the cat command and comparison is done with the next sample to detect any changes. Or, if the weakness of the audit is done to harden the configuration of the server, and then a series of grep command, used in RegEx expression, is more accurately identify the configuration settings are missing or incorrect. Similarly, the Windows server can ask the program using the command line, for example, the program can be used to expose net.exe user account on the system, or even a state judge or other attributes associated with the user account If the pipe with the find command as a user net.exe

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